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Time Signature Sub-Division

 

Beat Basics: Sub-Division, Making Time Signature Work For You

As we know, the time signature defines the count for each measure.  The count is like a palette of options, and the measures are like a canvas, ready to be created with.  Sub-division is what gives us the rhythm.  It is the color spectrum on the palette.

Sub-division is the breaking down of the count into smaller counts.  These smaller counts create the rhythm of the beat.  Also, they add up to equal the time signature, i.e. the overall count.  There are many ways to sub-divide with any given meter.  (Meter is another name for the time signature)

Let’s have an example.  We’ll use 7/8, which as we learned in the last Beat Basics article means a count of 7 eighth notes in each measure.  First, let’s break it down this way: 1-2  1-2  1-2-3,  1-2  1-2  1-2-3.  Three groupings of eighth notes that equal up to 7.  Hand clap on the 1 of each group to get a sense of the rhythm that is created by this sub-division: 1-2  1-2  1-2-3, 1-2  1-2  1-2-3, 1-2  1-2 1-2-3.  Notice the rhythm?  This is used in Turkish, Arabic, and some Latin music.

Another way to breakdown 7/8 is: 1-2  1-2-3  1-2, 1-2  1-2-3  1-2.  Do you see the difference between the two sub-divisions?  They have a different emphasis, and the count makes a different rhythm, even though they are both still in the same time signature.  7/8 can also be broken down as: 1-2-3  1-2  1-2,  1-2-3  1-2  1-2.  This creates yet another type of rhythm.  Any combination of eighth notes can be used, as long as they add up to 7, each one creating a different feel.  Even this unusual one works: 1  1-2-3  1-2-3,  1 1-2-3  1-2-3,  1  1-2-3  1-2-3.  Try clapping that one, it almost has a broken record feel as it comes back to the beginning of the rhythm.

We’ve looked at 7/8, let’s try a different time signature to further emphasize the point.  This time we’ll use 9/8.  The most common form of 9/8 is this: 1-2-3  1-2-3  1-2-3, 1-2-3  1-2-3  1-2-3.  This gives a triplet feel to the count.  Here is another way to do it:  1-2  1-2  1-2-3  1-2,  1-2  1-2  1-2-3  1-2.  There’s a big difference between the two, but they are both using the same time signature.

Do you see the value of knowing sub-division?  It opens up a whole new range of musical expression.  Knowing how to break down a time signature into different rhythms allows one to create with a whole range of different feels.  Not only does sub-division effect the rhythm and movement of a song, but it also significantly effects the melodic and chordal structure of the song.  The melody will be written based upon the rhythm of the music.  Rather than sticking to the standard 4/4 beat of most music, sub-dividing adds a whole variety of possibility.

Once one masters sub-dividing, one can then begin to create music that switches time signatures multiple times throughout a song.  This adds a great depth to what one can create.  The possibilities are indeed endless.  Hopefully this helps further your understand of time signature and rhythm.  The next installment of beat basics will cover Syncopation.  In the meantime, start counting and experimenting!

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Interview With Kenzie Slottow: Ableton Live Looping

Today we’re excited to catch up with flutist and composer Kenzie Slottow, to discuss life and upcoming events and projects.  Not only does Kenzie compose amazing music, she does it in a unique way utilizing Ableton Live’s looping capabilities.  She is also a student of Ableton certified instructor, Jimmy Allison.  We’re glad to present to you this recent interview:

AAT: What are some of your biggest influences musically?

KS: Lindsey Stirling– she plays violin to original dubstep, house, electro-pop, and all sorts of EDM. I’d never heard anyone put a classical instrument in that context. And she dances while she plays, which is amazingly difficult.  Her videography is really inspiring to me too. Zoe Keating, she used to play with the band Raspertina, and then she started doing cello looping in a really intricate way, using Ableton and some other software.  She’s a tech person by trade.  Her music is really heartfelt, and it transports you, very evocative.

AAT: How has that inspired your playing?

KS: Zoe made me want to loop. I was discouraged by the limitations of looping at first, and when I heard her music I learned there could be complexity and beauty in it. Lindsey showed me you can move and play your instrument, and since dance is a big part of my background, I saw they could both be done at the same time, and I immediately wanted to incorporate that. Also Lindsey’s music is very energetic and upbeat, and it appeals to a wide demographic of people. I really like her melodies as well.

AAT: How long have you been playing music?

KS: There’s a picture of me sitting with my dad, and singing while he plays guitar, and I look I’m about five. But I started playing flute when I was in 5th grade, so about 17 years.

AAT: Have you been playing the entire time since then?

KS:Yeah.

AAT: When you compose, do you write from the flute, or another instrument?

KS: I’ll sound out the melody in my head onto the flute; sometimes I’ll sing it into a voice memo and sound it out later. Usually I have a vision of the atmosphere I want to create before I even create the melody. I kind of go from big to small. Like “I want to write a love song” or “I want to write a song about being nervous”, which luckily for me translates into something original-sounding every time, because it’s flute and instrumental, without any lyrics.

AAT: How long does it typically take to compose a song?

KS: The songs on the dance EP were conceived in many different versions. So from the first to the final iteration, two of them were at least 6 months. You probably wouldn’t recognize the songs from the first to the last versions. It depends on a lot of things, I can’t really choose how long it takes. It comes from somewhere else, and I need to allow it to come through, without the mind trying to figure it out. It’s something I’m trying to work on, getting more spiritual about something I want to do rationally, and on a schedule.

AAT: How have you noticed that your music’s changed over years?

KS: I started out excited to learn the band and orchestra music in high school, and in college I continued to be passionate about classical music but discovered that there was a flutist in England composing jazzy contemporary stuff, that was notated, and I could read it and learn it. I didn’t have a jazz background, so I needed the notation. Ian Clarke is his name. And that was my introduction into playing non-classical. I asked an older classmate to teach me one of Ian’s pieces. It had almost beat-box type percussive stuff in it, you had to yell in the middle of it and make really dirty flute sounds. So, I loved it! And throughout college I learned Irish flute, and a little bit of North Indian Hindustani flute, and I really enjoyed combining all of the genres I was finding out about. So by senior year, I put together an arrangement using pretty much all three of those, Irish, Indian and Classical. This was unorthodox for a last piece for music school! In grad school at University of Texas, I was introduced to Electro-Acoustic composition; so that’s when I developed an interest in combining electronic sounds with flute. My style has expanded over the past seven years with all that I’ve learned about, and it keeps expanding.

AAT: So that got you into looping?

KS: Yeah, I didn’t know how to use the technology that those composers were using, so I started with a BOSS RC30, because it was much simpler.

AAT: What got you into learning Ableton?

KS: Once I had written several songs with the RC-30 I felt I had reached the limits of that hardware. So, I wanted to be able to take the pieces being recorded, and make them go away and allow them to come back at the end. On the RC-30 if you erase something there’s no bringing it back, unless you switch to another memory track which is tedious. So on Ableton you could do a lot more complex arranging, and it was designed for live performance. Not only would I be able to bring things back, but I could automate panning, volume levels, effects, and I could choose what each foot pedal did on my controller.

AAT: Have you found that using Ableton has changed the nature of your compositions?

KS: Yes. In the studio, making the Hold It Up To The Sun Loops EP, we were basically composing with individual segments instead of live in the studio, because I didn’t know how to use Ableton yet. But we were putting the pieces together in a way that could only be done on Ableton. I wanted to make sure the stuff on the CD could be done live, so the capabilities of the software were really important in creating the songs that way. I was able to give my songs a dramatic arch that was dependent on a lot of expressive techniques, like fading out the first rhythm while it’s overlaid with a different rhythm; like having certain sections play only from the right or left. Really specific details. I know there are a million hardware looping options out there, but I just couldn’t afford all of that, and with Ableton I knew if I got it once then the sky’s the limit, and the hardware would eventually reach a limit, where I would have to turn to the computer anyways.

Kenzie_Slottow_Ableton_Live_Looping

AAT: How long did it take to learn all of that?

KS: I’ve been working on this for about a year, and I now know just enough to make the songs on my album work, and we’re still improving them. I’m looking forward to the moment when I feel like the software is my creative playground.

AAT: Jimmy Allison is your Ableton instructor, how has the experience been, learning with him?

KS: I wouldn’t have been able to do any of this without Jimmy. When I first looked at the program it was like a foreign language. I go into Jimmy and I say I want to recreate this song live, it has 24 recorded segments and some of them fade out and come back later, some of them simplify and reappear in their original form, and some of them I want to sample for later in the song. And Jimmy says “Hmmm, I’ve never heard of that before, but let’s try this.” and then he figures it out in 10 or 20 minutes and creates a structure for doing this. And so slowly I’m assimilating this and understanding it, while in the meantime, it’s already happening. I can hear it, I can play it.

AAT: Has he been able to help you learn everything you wanted to learn?

KS: Yeah and more. As I get into my music, he keeps coming up with more ideas for how to make the live sound better. What equipment I might try, like in-ear monitors, and he even helps me with other aspects like an automated scheduling system that has simplified my life! He’s definitely a really holistic teacher and you get more than you expect.

AAT: So you have an album that is about it be released?

KS: Its called Hold It Up To The Sun, and there are two EPs under that name. The Loops EP is the all of the stuff I’ve been working with Jimmy on in Ableton. It’s layers of flute, beat-box, vocals, that I try to tell stories with. They range from really meditative to rock and roll to techno, and to almost comical lyrics. It’s mostly instrumental, with one song of lyrics. The Dance EP is shorter and the electronics were produced ahead of time. They’re lush backtracks with epic beats, and soaring melodies. I literally cannot stand still and play these songs at the same time. It’s being released on October 10th, 2015 at the North Door. Right now it’s available for pre-order on my Kickstarter.

AAT: Tell me about the Kickstarter.

KS: The Kickstarter is both a way to raise money to create the two EP’s, and sharing my first batch of original music with the world. I’m raising $8,000, it started on Labor Day and is continuing until October 7th. I’m offering not only the EP’s, but also T-shirts, remixes and preliminary versions of some of the tracks, for different levels of backing on Kickstarter. People can get the albums and a shirt for $25, and with $35 will also get two tickets to the album release party. At the door they’ll be $10 each.
Also on the Kickstarter page you can find the history behind the album’s title, and read about how this music can inspire children to be more creative.   [Kenzie’s Kickstarter can be found here: http://kck.st/1ODAM26 ]

AAT: Can you say anything more about the Release party?

KS: It’s going to be a very collaborative show. I have at least two dancers I’m going to be working with, three talented band members, and two great videographers,
to make this show a full sensory experience. It’s appropriate for all ages. In addition to playing the full two EP’s, I’m going to be doing covers of some of my biggest influences. There will be guest appearances as well. The vibe is going to be similar to a previous show I put at the Butterfly Bar in 2012 and 2014 called Disco Classical where we had a variety of musicians playing dance music in different styles. People were grooving, dancing or just enjoying themselves the entire night. I’m really looking to recreate that energy, but this time with my original music.

AAT: What time is the show on the 10th?

KS: Doors are at 7:30, Nicholas Azlon of MODAL will be performing at 8, and my set starts at 9. There will be an after party of beat boxing and jams by Maestro Giovani starting at 10:30, in the same location. Tickets are $8 on the North Door website, $10 at the door.

Here is a link to tickets for the show at the North Door: http://northdoor.queueapp.com/events/14700

http://www.facebook.com/events/171634103173831/ , http://www.kenzieslottow.com/ , http://www.instagram.com/kenzieslottow

This concludes our interview.  Stay tuned for more Interviews, Updates, and Tips.

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Time Signature and Beat Basics

Today we’ll be covering one of the prime aspects of creating music.  Before one considers song structure, harmony, or melody, one must start with the fundamental element, the beat.  This is what lays the foundation, and the layers of the song come from there.  To properly understand what makes a beat, it is important to know the correct terminology and concepts.  Music is a language, and when one knows the terms, ideas can be communicated to other musicians.  We will cover time signature, measures, phrases, beat counts, and also what they look like on the music page.  Knowing this will help line up different drums to match the rhythm, for example.

A note is the time measure of a sound in how it relates to the music.  To make a rhythm, one puts notes together into beats.  A beat is made up of one or more notes.  Try counting 1-2-3-4, while tapping your toe along with it.  Each one of these numbers is considered a beat.  In a four count like this, when the note and the beat are the same length, the note is called a 1/4 (quarter) note.  It is also called this because this note/beat is 1/4 of a measure, typically.  A measure is made up of beats, in our current example there are 4 beats in a measure.

Now lets look at some other note lengths.  If we kept the beat the same, 1-2-3-4 (one measure), but doubled the amount of notes (making there be 8), having two notes per beat, these notes would be called 1/8th (eighth) notes.  One note is 1/8th of the measure long.

We could double the notes again, still keeping four beats per measure.  This would make us have four notes per beat, 16 in total.  These notes are called 16th (sixteenth) notes, also because there are 16 of them per measure.

This is the basically how the count works, however measures are not limited to 4 beats.  How does one know what a measure is worth in a song?  This is dictated by what is called the time signature.  The time signature controls the overall count of a song, saying how many beats are in a measure and what notes to use to make up the beats.

Let’s break down what it means when someone says a song is in 4/4 time.  The bottom 4 means each beat is worth a 1/4 note, and the top 4 means there are 4 of these 1/4 notes in a measure.  If we change it to 3/4 for example, there are 3 beats in a measure.  You get the idea.

It gets tricky when we change the bottom number to say an 8.  Let’s look at the 6/8 time signature.  The 8 on the bottom shows that the beat is using 1/8th notes, and the 6 says there are six in a measure.  We will delve further into other time signatures in future blogs.  4/4 is the typical time signature is most music.

The final term to know is what is called a phrase.  A phrase is a group of measures.  Usually a phrase will be four, eight or sixteen measures long.  Phrasing is what is used to make a verse, chorus, and other aspects to constructing a song.  When one has the time signature, puts the beats into measures, groups the measures into phrases, a song is born!  Hopefully this was helpful in understanding the fundamental concepts for creating music.  With this understanding, you can work with other musicians and also better construct your music.

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